Research_Achievements

Research Achievements

New Varieties and Hybrids released

A  total  of  34  varieties  including  4  hybrids and 30 varieties were released for different ecologies during 2018-19 (Table). Four hybrids and 10 varieties were released by Central Varietal Release Committee whereas twenty varieties   were   released   by   State   Varietal Release Committee. State-wise, 11 varieties for Tripura, 5 for Odisha, 2 for Karnataka and one each for UP and Tamil Nadu were released by SVRC. 

Crop Improvement

  • AICRIP    Plant    Breeding    conducted    45 varietal trials and 5 hybrid rice trials in 939 experiments (792 varietal and 147 hybrid rice) at 122 locations (45 funded and 77 voluntary centres) in 27 states and 2 union Territories across  seven  zones  of  the  country  during 2018. 
  • A total of nine hundred and two varieties are tested in forty five varietal trials of which two hundred and nineteen varieties were found promising across the zones and states in diverse ecologies. 
  • A set of 77 hybrids were evaluated in four hybrid rice trials   viz., IHRT-E, IHRT-ME, IHRT-M and IHRT-MS. Twelve hybrids were found to be promising. 
  • The     Variety     Identification     Committee identified 11 varieties and 9 hybrids for release in different states.
  • Breeder seed production of 262 rice varieties and parental lines of six hybrids as per DAC indent  was conducted  at 42 centers  across the country. Overall  7204 quintals breeder seed was produced against the allocated target of 4323 quintals. Breeder seed production  of 21 varieties  was taken up at ICAR-IIRR  centre  with  a total  production of 163 quintals against the target of 173 quintals.

Crop Production

Agronomy

  • In   Agronomy   Program,   a   total   of   210 experiments were conducted at 44 locations on various aspects of rice agronomy to generate technologies which can reduce the cost of cultivation and enhance the productivity.
  • Under nutrient management trials in different ecologies 15 entries performed well and were identified as promising.
  • Mechanical transplanting method resulted in the highest grain yield (5.63 t/ha) followed by  manual  transplanting  (5.21  t/ha)  and SRI (5.06 t/ha). 150% RDF in kharif season followed by 100% RDF in rabi season was found to be the optimum.
  • Cost of cultivation under flooding was higher across all the locations from Rs. 33,443 to Rs. 45,850/- and there was a saving of Rs. 3,800/- per ha at Mandya under alternate wetting and  drying  over  flooding. Similarly,  water input was reduced.
  • An increase of 11% grain yield due to iron coating of seeds in direct seeded rice situation was reported across the test locations over uncoated seed.
  • Under late planting condition, application of higher dose of fertilizer (125% of RDF) and closer spacing gave significantly higher grain yield of rice.
  • The   systemic   post   emergence   herbicide Thiobencarb @ 5 l/ha and Rinskor (31.25-37.5 g/ha) at 4-7 leaf stage were found promising with higher weed control efficiency.
  • Pre  kharif  pulse  crop  increased  grain  yield by 9.5% over rice-rice system across the locations. 

Soil Science

  • AICRIP  on  soil  science  conducted  7  trails during rabi 2017-18 and kharif 2018 in 17 locations representing typical soil and crop systems and important soil rice growing regions.
  • In the 30th  year of study on long term soil fertility management in RBCS, RDF+FYM recorded maximum yield at all three locations and FYM alone treatment was on par to RDF in kharif at MND and TTB.
  • In the trail on soil quality and productivity assessment in farmer’s fields at six locations, soil quality index varied across the farmers’ fields  in  all  locations  and  did  not  match with crop productivity in most sites. Yield gap was maximum (51%) at Chinsurah and minimum at Maruteru (16%). Based on the nutrient requirement of a particular site, fertiliser prescriptions were recommended and they will be validated in the following kharif season.
  • Gypsum   application   in   sodic   soils   and liming in acid soils in conjunction with NPK improved rice yields. IIRR varieties; DRR Dhan 42, 43, 45 and 46 in sodic soils and US 312, Bina Dhan 8, Bina Dhan 75 and Maheswari in acid soils were found promising.
  • Nutrient expert recorded highest grain yields in about 70% of the farmers’ sites tested with a higher dose of N and K and lower dose of P there by saving the costly P fertilisers. 

Plant Physiology

  • Silicon   application   had   resulted   in   9% increase in mean grain yield. The Maximum increase was observed in US-313 and KRH- 4. Application silicon to water stressed crop reduced the negative impact of water stress.
  • Out of 30 rice genotypes tested only Govind, IET27514         IET27522   and   IET27515   show relative tolerance based on drought index values.
  • High temperature reduced the mean grain yield by 25%. Based on% reduction in yield under  elevated  temperature  condition  IET 27680 and IET 25713 show relative tolerance to high temperature. Based on yield stability index and ASV IET 26468 followed by IET 27477  and  IER  24911  can  be  identified  as relatively heat tolerant.
  • Out of 21 entries screened for multiple abiotic stress tolerance none of the entries show tolerance  to  all  the  stresses.  However,  IET 26487, IET 26493 and BPT 2782 show tolerance to at least two abiotic stresses.
  • The trial was conducted with three nitrogen treatments. Based on yield and stability values Varadhan x BPT5204/10 and Sampada x Jaya/3 and Sampada x Jaya/3, Sampada X Jaya/2 and Varadhan x BPT5204/10 can be identified as stable genotypes under 0 Kg N and 50 kg N ha-1
  • Out of 15 AVT entries tested at 7 locations only IET 27559 showed relative tolerance to low-light stress. All other entries suffered yield loss by >45%.

Crop Protection

Entomology

  • Seven  major  trials  encompassing  various studies with 393 experiments (87.3%) were conducted  at  41  locations  (32  funded  + 9 voluntary) in 22 states and one Union territory.
  • A  set  of    1661  entries  including  1425  pre- breeding lines, 94 hybrids, one cultivar and 28 germplasm accessions and 113 check varieties were  evaluated  against    12 insect  pests  in 213 tests (46 greenhouse reactions+167 field reactions). 104 entries (6.62%) were promising against various insect pests of which 15 entries were under retesting.
  • 16 breeding lines viz., BPT 2601, CB 15569, CB 15144, MTU 1303, MTU 1305, MTU 1306, MTU  1307,  MTU  1308,  MTU  1309,  WGL, WGL 1319,  WGL  1320,  RNR  19416, RP   5995   Bphk17-5,   IR   73382-80-9-3-13-2-2-1-3-B (HWR-16) and RP 5690-20-6-3-2-1, four germplasm accessions viz., IC 216735, IC 76013, IC 75975 and IC 76057 and two checks PTB 33, RP 2068-18-3-5 and MO1 were promising against brown planthopper.
  • SKL    07-11-117-50-65-60-267,    WGL    1164, Aganni and W1263 were promising against gall midge. HWR 24, MSM 139, NEG 186, HPR 2613 and HWR 3 were promising against leaf folder. Sixteen entries viz., JGL 32467,  JGL  32485,  BK  39-179,  JGL  33080, JGL 33124, JGL 34508,   RP 5587-B-B-B-209, RP 5587-B-B-B-253-2, BK 35-155,  GL 34505, KAUPTB   0627-2-11,   KAUPTB   0627-2-14, RP   5587-B-B-B-258-1,   RP   5587-B-B-B-262, RP 5588-B-B-B-B-232 and JGL 28547 were promising against stem borer. BPT 2231, BPT 2611, IET 27275, IET 27284, IET 27480, IET 27379 and IET 27392 were promising against 2-3 insect pests.
  • PTB  33  with  bph2+Bph3+unknown  factors and   RP   2068-18-3-5   with   Bph33(t)   gene were promising at all 10 locations while Rathu Heenati with Bph3+Bph17 genes and T 12 with bph7 gene performed better in 5 locations. Aganni (Gm8), INRC 3021(Gm8) and W1263 (Gm1) were promising against gall midge in 5-8 tests.
  • There   was   no   adverse   impact   on   the performance of  the  two  newer  insecticides (spinetoram    +    methoxyfenozide)    when applied     alone   or   in   combination   with fungicides (hexaconazole and tricyclazole) confirming the compatibility of the chemicals when used as tank mix in the field.
  • The  essential  oils  like  eucalyptus  oil  was found effective against stem borer; cedar wood oil was effective against gall midge, all the essential oils were moderately effective against planthoppers, effective against leaf folder and safer to natural enemies.
  • Late planting of rice resulted in high incidence of stem borer, gall midge, leaf folder, caseworm, brown planthopper and white backed planthopper except whorl maggot as compared to early and normal planting.
  • Non-pesticidal  methods  such  as  increasing floral diversity, water management, organic manures, alleyways as part of ecological engineering resulted in reduced planthopper populations and increased natural enemy populations.
  • In the bio intensive pest management plots, pest incidence was reduced and natural enemies were higher as compared to farmer’s practice.
  • A   significant   negative   relationship   was observed between i) leaf folder damaged leaves and grain yield and ii) hispa damaged leaves and grain yield.
  • Integrated     pest     management     practices resulted in lower insect pest incidence, disease incidence, weeds, higher grain yields and high benefit cost ratio compared to farmer’s practice.
  • Population    monitoring    of    insect    pest populations through light trap collections revealed yellow stem borer and brown planthopper to be the major insect pests along with leaf folder and GLH in low numbers.

Plant Pathology

  • AICRIP   programme   on   Plant   Pathology during   kharif    2018    involving    14    trials including host plant resistance, virulence of plant pathogens, disease observation and disease management trials were conducted at different AICRIP locations.
  • In various screening nurseries, 1418 entries were evaluated and the following promising cultures showed resistant reaction for more than two diseases: IET # 28014, 28015, 26027,27077,  27094,  27280,  28020,  25618,  27579, 7668,  27781,  27747,  27806,  25826,  2657, 26594,  27461,  27466,  27467,  27378,  27333, 27377,  27389,  CB14161,  NWGR-11048  and RNR-11450.
  • Virulence  pattern  of  Pyricularia  grisea  and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae: Reaction pattern of 24 isolates of Pyricularia grisea on 25 differentials were grouped into 8 clusters. The reaction pattern revealed a shift in pathogen profile structure at many locations. Two Bacterial blight resistance genes xa13 and Xa21 showed susceptibility at 11 hot spot locations. The isolate from Maruteru showed exceptional virulence and all the differentials showed susceptible reaction to this isolate.
  • Across    the    locations,    delayed    sowing/ planting increased the disease development of leaf blast, brown spot and sheath rot. Normal sown crop recorded high disease severity of bacterial leaf blight and disease progress of sheath blight, was high in the early and normal sown crop. Neck blast was severe in the normal sown crop.
  • The  combination  product  is  trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50% WG (0.4g/l) found effective against leaf blast, neck blast and sheath rot. Azoxystrobin 18.2% w/w + difenoconazole 11.4% w/w SC (1.0 ml/l) found effective against sheath blight and sheath  rot.  Mancozeb  50%  +  carbendazim 25% WS (30.5%) and Flusilazole 12.5% + carbendazim 25% SC found effective in managing brown spot of rice.
  • Incorporation    of    FYM,    seed    treatment, application  of  DAP,  MOP  in  the  nursery area  followed  by  the  application  of  FYM + Trichoderma during land preparation, cultural  practices,  application  of  75%  RDF + micronutrient solution, one blanket application  of  cartap  hydrochloride  at  15 DAT and propiconazole at booting stage in main  field found  to  be  most  effective  and consistent in reducing the incidence of leaf blast, neck blast, sheath blight, brown spot and sheath rot and also increasing the grain yield.
  • Among  the  seven  different  essential  oils tested two sprays of Clove oil @ 2 ml/l found better against leaf blast, whereas Neem oil @ 2 ml/l and Cedar wood oil @ 2 ml/l effective for reducing leaf and neck blast disease severity.
  • Production Oriented Survey was conducted in 15 States of 17 AICRIP centres.   During 2018 three cyclones viz., ‘Daye’in south Odisha, adjoining Andhra Pradesh; ‘Titli’ in near Palasa, Andhra Pradesh and ‘Gaja’ in Tamil Nadu made severe impact.
  • Many  farmers  from  different  states  also expressed the need for timely availability of seeds of different hybrids, different inputs, farm mechanization (on hire basis/custom hiring), market facility and farm loan.
  • Severe outbreak of bacterial bight reported from   Nizamabad   and   Suryapet   districts of      Telangana.   Similarly   false   smut   (in parts of Uttarakhand, Mandi in Himachal Pradesh and Siddharthnagar in UP), sheath blight (in Haryana, Punjab, Karnataka and Chhattisgarh), Neck blast (in Himachal Pradesh,     Karnataka    and    Chhattisgarh) caused severe damage.
  • BPH/WBPH    was    very    widespread    in moderate to severe form in most of the districts of Haryana and many parts of Vidharbha region of Maharashtra and Telangana. There was severe attack of rice hispa in Nizamabad district of Telangana

Transfer of Technology

  • During  the  year  2018-19,  870  FLDs  were conducted through which a cafeteria of rice technologies were demonstrated covering 18 states and five major rice ecosystems of the country.

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